Features of Lead-Induced Tricuspid Regurgitation in Patients With Heart Failure Events After Cardiac Implantation of Electronic Devices ― A Three-Dimensional Echocardiographic Study ―
Circulation Journal ; doi:10.1253/circj.cj-20-0620
Abstract: Background:Lead-induced tricuspid regurgitation (TR) after cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) implantation is not fully understood. This study aimed to reveal the features of lead-induced TR by 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) in patients with heart failure (HF) events after CIED implantation. Methods and Results:In 143 patients, 3DE assessments for the tricuspid valve (TV) and right ventricular morphologies were sequentially performed within 3 days after CIED implantations, during TR exacerbations, and at ≥6 months after TR exacerbations. TR exacerbations were observed in 29 patients (median 10 months after CIED implantation, range 1–28 months), 15 of whom had lead-induced TR. In the 29 patients, the tenting height of the TV, tricuspid annular (TA) height, and TA area at baseline were independent predictors for worsening TR. In patients with lead-induced TR, tenting height of the TV and TA area were identified as the risk factors. In addition, all patients with a lead positioned on a leaflet immediately after CIED implantations developed lead-induced TR. At follow up, TR exacerbation of lead-induced TR persisted with TA remodeling, but it was improved in the lead non-related-TR group. Conclusions:TA remodeling at baseline and a lead location on a leaflet immediately after CIED implantation were associated with lead-induced TR in patients with HF events after CIED implantation. Persistent TA remodeling may make lead-induced TR refractory against HF treatments.
Keywords: Tricuspid Regurgitation / Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device / tricuspid valve / 3-dimensional Echocardiography
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