A pathway phenotype linking metabolic, immune, oxidative, and opioid pathways with comorbid depression, atherosclerosis, and unstable angina
Abstract: Background There is strong comorbidity between atherosclerosis (ATS) and depression which is attributed to increased atherogenicity, insulin resistance (IR), and immune and oxidative stress. Aim of the study To examine the role of the above pathways and mu-opioid receptor (MOR), β-endorphin levels, zinc, copper, vitamin D3, calcium, and magnesium in depression due to ATS/unstable angina (UA). Methods Biomarkers were assayed in 58 controls and 120 ATS patients divided into those with moderate and severe depression according to the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) scores >19 and >29, respectively. Results Neural network and logistic regression models showed that severe depression due to ATS/UA was best predicted by interleukin-6 (IL-6), UA, MOR, zinc, β-endorphin, calcium and magnesium, and that moderate depression was associated with IL-6, zinc, MOR, β-endorphin, UA, atherogenicity, IR, and calcium. Neural networks yielded a significant discrimination of severe and moderate depression with an area under the receiver operating curves of 0.831 and 0.931, respectively. Using Partial Least Squares path analysis, we found that 66.2% of the variance in a latent vector extracted from ATS/UA clinical features, and the BDI-II scores, atherogenicity, and IR could be explained by the regression on IL-6, IL-10, zinc, copper, calcium, MOR, and age. The BDI-II scores increased from controls to ATS to UA class III to UA class IV. Conclusions Immune activation, the endogenous opioid system, antioxidants, trace elements, and macrominerals modulate a common core shared by increased depressive symptoms, ATS, UA, atherogenicity, and IR.
Keywords: insulin resistance / Neural / stress / opioid / models / ATS / MOR / zinc
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