Naringenin Prevents Inflammation, Apoptosis, and DNA Damage in Potassium Oxonate-Induced Hyperuricemia in Rat Liver Tissue: Roles of Cytochrome C, NF-κB, Caspase-3, and 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine
Abstract:Background: Hyperuricemia (HU) is a metabolic disease characterized by high uric acid levels in the blood. HU is a risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular complications, metabolic syndrome, and chronic kidney disease. Purpose: The present study was performed to determine the effect of experimental HU on xanthine oxidase (XO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), interleukin-17 (IL-17), cytochrome C, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), caspase-3, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in liver tissues of rats. Study Design: Thirty-five, male, Wistar albino-type rats were used for this study. Experimental groups were formed as follows: Group 1: control group; Group 2: potassium oxonate (PO) group; group 3: PO+NAR (naringenin; 2 weeks) group; and Group 4: PO (2 weeks)+NAR (2 weeks) group (total of 4 weeks). Methods: The first group was not given anything other than normal rat food and drinking water. In the second group, a 250 mg/kg intraperitoneal dose of PO was administered for 2 weeks. In the third group, 250 mg/kg intraperitoneal PO (application for 2 weeks) and 100 mg/kg NAR intraperitoneally 1 hr after each application were administered. In the fourth group, intraperitoneal PO administration was applied for 2 weeks, followed by intraperitoneal administration of NAR for 2 weeks (4 weeks in total). At the end of the experimental period, XO, TNF-α, NF-κB, IL-17, cytochrome C, GPx, caspase-3, and 8-OHdG levels were determined in liver tissues. Results: HU increased XO, TNF-α, NF-κB, IL-17, cytochrome C, caspase-3, and 8-OHdG levels in liver tissues. However, both 2 and 4 weeks of NAR supplementation decreased these values, and also NAR supplementation led to an increase in GPx levels in tissues. Conclusions: The results of the study show that increased inflammation, apoptosis, and DNA damage in experimental HU can be prevented by administration of NAR due to inhibition of cytochrome C, NF-κB, caspase-3, and 8-OHdG.
Keywords: hyperuricemia / liver / naringenin / IL-17 / cytochrome C
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