Quantum Dual Signature with Coherent States Based on Chained Phase-Controlled Operations
Applied Sciences , Volume 10; doi:10.3390/app10041353
Abstract: A novel encryption algorithm called the chained phase-controlled operation (CPCO) is presented in this paper, inspired by CNOT operation, which indicates a stronger correlation among message states and each message state depending on not only its corresponding key but also other message states and their associated keys. Thus, it can prevent forgery effectively. According to the encryption algorithm CPCO and the classical dual signature protocols, a quantum dual signature scheme based on coherent states is proposed in this paper. It involves three participants, the customer Alice, the merchant Bob and the bank Trent. Alice expects to send her order message and payment message to Bob and Trent, respectively. It is required that the two messages must be linked to guarantee the payment is paid for the corresponding order. Thus, Alice can generate a quantum dual signature to achieve the goal. In detail, Alice firstly signs her two messages with the shared secret key. Then She connects the two signatures into a quantum dual signature. Finally, Bob and Trent severally verify the signatures of the order message and the payment message. Security analysis shows that our scheme can ensure its security against forgery, repudiation and denial. In addition, simulation experiments based on the Strawberry Fields platform are performed to valid the feasibility of CPCO. Experimental results demonstrate that CPCO is viable and the expected coherent states can be acquired with high fidelity, which indicates that the encryption algorithm of the scheme can be implemented on quantum devices effectively.
Keywords: coherent states / e-payment System / the chained phase-controlled operations / quantum dual signature
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