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Cross sectional study of depression, anxiety and quality of life in glaucoma patients at a tertiary centre in North Kerala

, Nimitha Najeeb, Arino John, Vn Anima
Published: 1 January 2022
 by  Medknow

Abstract: Purpose: To determine the magnitude and direction of association of anxiety and depression and the quality of life (QoL) in persons with glaucoma. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study in conducted in a tertiary eye center in north Kerala included glaucoma patients and normal subjects aged 40–80 years. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), Glaucoma Quality of Life (GQOL), and glaucoma evaluation were performed for all participants. One-way analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis. Results: The study included 148 subjects with glaucoma and 150 subjects without glaucoma. The prevalence of depression (35.81%) and anxiety (25.0%) was significantly higher in glaucoma patients. In a multivariate regression model, PHQ-9 (adjusted OR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.31–4.38, P< 0.001), GAD-7 (adjusted OR: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.01–4.19, P = 0.01) and GQOL (coefficient: 6.92, 95% CI: 4.52–9.31, P = < 0.001) was significantly associated with glaucoma. The GAD-7 score was significantly higher (P = 0.02) in PACG compared to POAG in moderate and severe anxiety. ADL scores (one-way ANOVA, P = 0.001) and GQOL scores (one-way ANOVA, P< 0.001) were significantly associated with vision impairment and blindness. Conclusion: Depression and anxiety are common in glaucoma patients, indicating the need for screening protocols using PHQ and GAD scales to identify persons at risk. The lack of ophthalmic risk factors associated with depression and anxiety emphasizes the importance of psychological evaluation and combined management with a psychiatrist in glaucoma management.
Keywords: quality of life / glaucoma / persons / scores / depression / anxiety / http / xmlns / webservices.ovid.com/mrws/1.0

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