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Formation and Development of Investigation of Misdemeanours as a Form of Pre-trial Investigation in Ukraine (the 18th–19th Centuries)

Volodymyr Galagan, Mykola Yakovenko

Abstract: The article deals with the preconditions of differentiation of forms of pre-trial investigation in Ukraine in the 18th–19th centuries. The concept of investigation of misdemeanours as a form of pre-trial investigation at different stages of social development are considered. The base source of the Russian Empire is examined, with the aspects of using of the term “investigation of misdemeanours” in law enforcement practice thoroughly covered. It is established that this term at the legislative level and in the literary sources held for a long time is subject to transformation in terms of its functional direction. The paper offers a description of the study of the early stage of development and a comparison with the modern form of pre-trial investigation. It is established that at all stages of its development there is a common feature: the provision of a simplified order.The article presents the key differences between the knowledge at the early stage of its creation and the modern form of pre-trial investigation. However, the investigation of misdemeanours starts from the moment of the illegal act until the end of the pre-trial investigation. At first, this investigation of misdemeanours had few signs of research verification. The collected materials were examined by the proceedings and could not be determined by full evidence without appropriate “legalization” procedures. The investigation of misdemeanours had not clearly defined a procedural form and was not limited to specific deadlines, and depended almost entirely on the inner convictions of the individual who conducted this knowledge. In the legislation of the pre-revolutionary period, the investigation of misdemeanours should be carried out by a wide range of authorized persons (police ranks, military and civilian authorities, clergy, government officials, village elders, and others). The investigation of misdemeanours was carried out in everything without exception of crime, regardless of its severity at those times.It is proved that the modern model of pre-trial investigation represents the positive historical experience and the right opinion. Today we can observe a consistent procedure of the implementation of the exercise, a special circle of authorized persons, and the introduction of a balance of appropriate differentiation of forms of pre-trial investigation.
Keywords: Legislative / Pre Trial Investigation / Differentiation of Forms / Form of Pre / investigation of misdemeanours

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