Assessing Vegetation Composition and the Indicator Species Around Water Source Areas in a Pine Forest Plantation: A Case Study from Watujali and Silengkong Catchments, Kebumen, Indonesia
Forests , Volume 10; doi:10.3390/f10100825
Abstract: This research aimed to assess vegetation composition and the indicator species around water source areas of pine forest plantation. Data were collected through interview and vegetation survey. Vegetation communities were first compared using multi-response permutation procedure (MRPP) analysis. Indicator species analysis was then employed to determine the indicator species for each condition by considering historical data from the interview. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and simple correlation analysis were also included. The result showed significant differences in species composition between water source areas in Watujali (lower low flow) and Silengkong (higher low flow) catchments, indicated by T = −5.104, p = 0.000. Pinus merkusii was dominant in Watujali (important value = 78%, D′ = 0.62) compared to Silengkong (important value = 41%, D' = 0.21), and in becoming an indicator species (value = 52.1, p = 0.042) for Watujali. Meanwhile, Laportea sinuata, as the specific tree of water source areas, was an indicator for Silengkong (value = 29.4, p = 0.004). At a smaller level, indicator species differentiated the two catchments, even though they shared similar in D′ and H′. Among specific plants of water source areas, only Ficus septica was an indicator for Watujali (value = 29.4, p = 0.004), given its adaptability. Specific plants of water source areas, including Laportea sinuata, Coctus spicatus, and Calocassia gigantea, were significant indicators for Silengkong catchments, illustrated by 34.6, 35.9, and 33.0 of indicator values, respectively. These results also reflected the relationship among tree vegetation change, environmental features, and the growth of smaller species, as implied by both CCA and simple correlation. This finding could be used as basic information for early assessment of environmental change and environmental restoration efforts around water source areas on pine forest plantations. Repetition of this study is suggested to be carried out in other pine forest areas, as each region sometimes has its own specific native and natural species.
Keywords: indicator species / catchment / water source
Click here to see the statistics on "Forests" .