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Contemplating SARS-CoV-2 infectivity with respect to ABO blood groups

Ul-Ain Amjad Qurat-, Saeed Umar, Piracha Zahra Zahid, Kanwal Kashmala, Munir Madiha, Waseem Atika, Nisar Tayyaba, Shoukat Arisha, Uppal Rizwan

Abstract: COVID-19 is a disease that is caused by SARS-CoV-2 and very speedily spreading all over the world. The blood group’s effect on COVID-19 is not clear. The main aim of this article is to determine the relationship between sensitivity of COVID-19 and ABO blood group. For this study we have observed that the individuals with blood group A are at higher risk of getting COVID-19 because they contain the higher concentration of Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 that provide the site to virus for entry. But in other blood groups the natural Anti A antibodies block the interaction between host receptor and virus and disturb their interaction. Certain studies show that the infectivity and mortality rate in covid patients is not affected by AB blood group system. But according to research, increased ventilator usage, ICU stay was observed in critically ill patients with AB blood group than of other blood groups. O blood group has proved to be protective against SARS-CoV-2 due to the presence of both anti-A and anti-B antibodies as they prevent the binding of the spike protein S of the virus with the ACE2 receptors which are present on the surface of cells. Moreover, furin also plays a major role in penetration of virus in the host cells. Furin is required for the activation of the spike protein S of the virus and due to the low efficiency of furin cleavage in blood group O it is protected from SARS-CoV-2 and other chronic diseases. Mortality rate of covid 19 depends upon the environmental factors, number of people living in the area and also some economic factors. The different strains of COVID-19 effect the different people differently and as the time passes the strain of COVID-19 has changed and thus according to this the mortality rate of different provinces and areas varies due to environmental factors. Pregnant women have no any kind of transportation of covid to their fetuses but mostly patients of blood group A are being affected by COVID-19 and hence their fetuses are somehow effected. And those pregnant women having blood group O does not have any risk of COVID-19 of severe stages.
Keywords: virus / blood group / antibodies / SARS CoV / furin / rate in covid / protein

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