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A scalable approach for developing clinical risk prediction applications in different hospitals
Journal of Biomedical Informatics , Volume 118; doi:10.1016/j.jbi.2021.103783
Abstract: Machine learning (ML) algorithms are now widely used in predicting acute events for clinical applications. While most of such prediction applications are developed to predict the risk of a particular acute event at one hospital, few efforts have been made in extending the developed solutions to other events or to different hospitals. We provide a scalable solution to extend the process of clinical risk prediction model development of multiple diseases and their deployment in different Electronic Health Records (EHR) systems. We defined a generic process for clinical risk prediction model development. A calibration tool has been created to automate the model generation process. We applied the model calibration process at four hospitals, and generated risk prediction models for delirium, sepsis and acute kidney injury (AKI) respectively at each of these hospitals. The delirium risk prediction models have on average an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.82 at admission and 0.95 at discharge on the test datasets of the four hospitals. The sepsis models have on average an AUROC of 0.88 and 0.95, and the AKI models have on average an AUROC of 0.85 and 0.92, at the day of admission and discharge respectively. The scalability discussed in this paper is based on building common data representations (syntactic interoperability) between EHRs stored in different hospitals. Semantic interoperability, a more challenging requirement that different EHRs share the same meaning of data, e.g. a same lab coding system, is not mandated with our approach. Our study describes a method to develop and deploy clinical risk prediction models in a scalable way. We demonstrate its feasibility by developing risk prediction models for three diseases across four hospitals.
Keywords: Machine learning / Scalability / Delirium / Sepsis / Acute kidney injury / Electronic health records (EHR) / Clinical decision support
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