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Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors in Heart Failure

Kevin S. Shah, James C. Fang
Published: 13 September 2021

Abstract: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors improve blood glucose control by blocking renal glucose reabsorption with little subsequent risk of hypoglycemia. Consequently, there are decreases in plasma volume, body weight, and blood pressure. Additional putative benefits include improved cardiovascular energetics, decreased systemic inflammation, and less renal dysfunction. Multiple cardiovascular outcome trials in diabetic patients have demonstrated this drug class reduces the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Reductions in heart failure (HF) hospitalization suggested that SGLT2 inhibitors might prove useful for the primary treatment of HF. Two large subsequent trials studying SGLT2 inhibitors in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) demonstrated a reduction in cardiovascular mortality, HF hospitalizations, and renal-specific adverse events. This medication class is now recognized as a new pillar of therapy for patients with HFrEF. The cardiovascular and HF community await the results of ongoing trials of SGLT2 inhibition in patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Volume 62 is January 2022. Please see for revised estimates.
Keywords: blood pressure / Sodium / SGLT2 / inhibitors / treatment / cardiovascular / diabetic / heart / glucose

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