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Removal of Chromium (VI) from Tannery Effluent Using Bio-Char of Phoenix reclinata Seeds

Katenta Joseph, Nakiguli Caroline, Mukasa Paul, Ntambi Emmanuel, Joseph Katenta, Caroline Nakiguli, Paul Mukasa, Emmanuel Ntambi
Green and Sustainable Chemistry , Volume 10, pp 91-107; doi:10.4236/gsc.2020.103007

Abstract: The potential of the Senegal date palm (Phoenix reclinata) seed bio-char to remove chromium (VI) ions from aqueous solutions by adsorption was investigated. Adsorption experiments were performed on the tannery effluent and standard aqueous solutions of chromium (VI) for varying adsorbent doses, contact times, pH, temperatures, and interfering anionic ions by batch mode. Phoenix reclinata seeds (PRS) bio-char was used in the investigation and the residual chromium (VI) was determined using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Results showed that the bio-char removed up to 86% of chromium (VI) ions in the effluent at pH 2. The highest percentage adsorption registered was 97% in an aqueous solution of chromium (VI) at pH 1 and this dropped to less than 10% at pH greater than 2. A general increase in adsorption with the increase in temperature was observed but reduced when the temperature was raised beyond 60°C. The presence of interfering anions caused a reduction in the adsorption of chromium (VI) ions. The adsorption process fitted both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models and the maximum adsorption capacity, Qo, was 0.6593 mg/g. Thus, PRS bio-char can therefore be used by industries and institutions like secondary schools to treat effluents that contain chromium (VI).
Keywords: Adsorption / Chromium (vi) / Tannery Effluent / Phoenix Reclinata

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