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Landslide Affected Areas and Challenges Imposed in North Eastern Region of India: An Appraisal

Abstract: The Earth Observation (EO) data of various Spatio-temporal resolutions are used to study potential sources of landslide hazards in the North Eastern Region (NER) of India. The studies are made in all the eight states of NER, namely Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, and Tripura on different project modes during the past decade. All types of landslides of various magnitudes and dimensions are triggered by rainfall, earthquakes, or by combined effects in this tectonically active region. Anthropogenic factors also play a role in places, particularly in urban areas. The NER is one of the most seismically active regions in the world, and it falls in the highest seismic risk zone, (Zone V), in the seismic zoning map of India. The region also receives much rainfall because of its geographic and climatic conditions. We report how the physiography, as well as the local geology, plays the main role in the failure of the rock formation and over-burden causing the landslide hazards, which create severe communication disruption and sometimes casualties. Fragile, soft, and weathered rock formations along the steep slope make the terrain much more susceptible to landslides. Deep-seated landslides disrupt transportation networks for a longer duration while shallow slides, mostly affect the urban life for a short duration. The reported causalities associated with landslide hazards are much high in the NER compared to other parts of India.
Keywords: rainfall / landslides / seismic / duration / disrupt / rock / India / NER / Affected / hazards

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