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Magneto Mixed Convection of Williamson Nanofluid Flow through a Double Stratified Porous Medium in Attendance of Activation Energy

Published: 26 May 2022
 by  MDPI

Abstract: This article aims to develop a mathematical simulation of the steady mixed convective Darcy–Forchheimer flow of Williamson nanofluid over a linear stretchable surface. In addition, the effects of Cattaneo–Christov heat and mass flux, Brownian motion, activation energy, and thermophoresis are also studied. The novel aspect of this study is that it incorporates thermal radiation to investigate the physical effects of thermal and solutal stratification on mixed convection flow and heat transfer. First, the profiles of velocity and energy equations were transformed toward the ordinary differential equation using the appropriate similarity transformation. Then, the system of equations was modified by first-order ODEs in MATLAB and solved using the bvp4c approach. Graphs and tables imply the impact of physical parameters on concentration, temperature, velocity, skin friction coefficient, mass, and heat transfer rate. The outcomes show that the nanofluid temperature and concentration are reduced with the more significant thermal and mass stratification parameters estimation.
Keywords: Williamson nanofluid / thermal stratification / solutal stratification / mixed convection / Darcy–Forchheimer flow / activation energy

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