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Rational conditions of fatty acids obtaining by soapstock treatment with sulfuric acid

Natalia Sytnik, , Viktoria Mazaeva, Viktoriia Kalyna, Andrii Chernukha, Serhii Vazhynskyi, Oleksandr Yashchenko, Murat Maliarov, Oleg Bogatov, Borys Bolibrukh

Abstract: As a result of alkaline neutralization of oils, a significant amount of soapstock is formed, the utilization of which creates an environmental and economic problem. The production of fatty acids from soapstock using sulfuric acid decomposition is investigated in this work. The peculiarity of the work is the determination of regression dependences of the yield and neutralization number of fatty acids on the soapstock processing conditions: temperature and duration. Soapstock obtained after neutralization of sunflower oil was used as raw material. Soapstock indicators: mass fraction of moisture – 15.4 %, total fat – 71.9 %, fatty acids – 64.5 %, neutral fat – 7.4 %. Rational conditions of soapstock processing are determined: temperature (90–95) °С, duration 40 min. Under these conditions, the fatty acid yield is 79.0 %, the neutralization number is 180.0 mg KOH/g. Quality indicators of the obtained fatty acids: mass fraction of moisture and volatile substances – 1.8 %, mass fraction of total fat – 97.0 %, cleavage depth – 64.5 % of oleic acid, the presence of mineral acids – no. Fatty acids correspond to fatty acids of the first grade according to DSTU 4860 (CAS 61788-66-7). An increase in the temperature and duration of soapstock contact with sulfuric acid increases the yield and neutralization number of fatty acids. This is due to a decrease in the viscosity of the reaction medium, an increase in the depth of cleavage of soapstock soaps with sulfuric acid, an increase in the intensity and duration of mass transfer. The developed rational conditions allow obtaining fatty acids from soapstock, which correspond in composition to fatty acids from refined deodorized sunflower oil. The results allow solving a number of economic and environmental problems associated with soapstock utilization and can be implemented in oil refineries and fatty acid production

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