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Contemporary practice of prostate biopsy in Nigeria: Differences in technique and prophylactic measures among urologist

, Odezi Fidelis Otobo, Henry Napoleon Akporeha

Abstract: Objectives: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer affecting men in Nigeria. Trans-rectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate is routinely performed to diagnose prostate cancer. Though safe, prostate biopsy may be associated with some complications. In Nigeria, there are scanty national guidelines on prophylactic measures and techniques in prostate biopsy. The aim of the study was to assess the pre-biopsy prophylactic measures and biopsy protocols employed by Nigerian Urologists. Material and Methods: A survey questionnaire was distributed during the 2019 Annual General Meeting of the Nigerian Association of Urologic Surgeons and information collected on the biopsy route, use of anesthesia, antibiotic prophylaxis, number of samples taken, and possible complications. Results: A total of 72 urologists participated in the study. Bowel preparation was performed by 10 (13.9%) participants for a duration of 1–3 days. All urologists used the transrectal route and anesthesia was given by all. Prophylactic antibiotics were given by all participants. Our participants administered antibiotic prophylaxis for a period of 1, 3, 5, or 7 days (4.2%, 23.6%, 43.1%, and 22.2%, respectively). Ciprofloxacin/metronidazole combination was most commonly prescribed (70.8%). Most urologists (69.4%) commonly take between 8 and 12 core tissues per biopsy session. The most common complication was hemorrhage (43.1%), followed by perineal pain (40.3%). Conclusion: There is a lack of evenness in pre-biopsy prophylactic measures and biopsy protocol among Nigerian Urologists. There is a need for a Nigerian guideline to elucidate the most appropriate antibiotic(s), route of administration and duration of treatment, the preferred anesthesia type, and the number of core-tissues that are appropriate.
Keywords: prophylaxis / urologists / prophylactic measures / prostate biopsy / guideline / Nigeria / survey / treatment

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