Anatomical and Technical Considerations of the Hi-PAC (Hi-Volume Proximal Adductor Canal) Block: A Novel Motor-Sparing Regional Analgesia Technique for Below-Knee Surgeries
Published: 6 February 2022
by Cureus, Inc.
Cureus , Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.21953
Abstract: Below-knee surgeries are among the most commonly performed orthopedic or plastic and reconstructive procedures. They are associated with significant postoperative pain despite the use of systemic analgesics. The regional analgesia (RA) technique has been proven beneficial for better patient outcomes when used as an adjunct to multimodal analgesia in the early postoperative period. However, apprehension of an acute compartment syndrome (ACS) can limit the administration of appropriate RA techniques in such surgeries, leading to more opioid consumption to meet the increasing analgesic demands. Many modifications in the RA related to techniques and the local anesthetic type, concentration, and volume have been described to tackle such situations. The ideal RA technique should provide procedure-specific analgesia below the knee joint without affecting motor power and/or causing any delay in diagnosing or treating ACS. The high-volume proximal adductor canal (Hi-PAC) block is a novel RA technique described as motor-sparing and procedure-specific for the below-knee surgeries. The Hi-PAC block, a single-injection technique, is administered in the proximal adductor canal targeting the saphenous nerve and depositing local anesthetics (LA) adjacent to the femoral artery below the vasoadductor membrane (VAM). By directly blocking the saphenous nerve and indirectly the sciatic nerve, it covers the entire innervation of the pain-generating components involved in the below-knee surgeries. This article describes the anatomical and technical considerations of the Hi-PAC block and provides background knowledge of the relevant anatomy and sonoanatomy for a better understanding of its intricacies.
Keywords: injection technique / proximal adductor canal / pain / Anatomical and Technical / Technical Considerations
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