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Decision-making and management of uveitic cataract

Soon-Phaik Chee, Nicole Shu-Wen Chan, Seng-Ei Ti
Published: 1 January 2017
 by  Medknow

Abstract: The visual outcome of uveitic cataract surgery depends on the underlying uveitic diagnosis, the presence of vision-limiting pathology and perioperative optimization of disease control. A comprehensive preoperative ophthalmic assessment for the presence of concomitant ocular pathology, with particular emphasis on macula and optic nerve involvement, is essential to determine which patients will benefit from improved vision after cataract surgery. Meticulous examination in conjunction with adjunct investigations can help in preoperative surgical planning and in determining the need for combined or staged procedures. The eye should be quiescent for a minimum of 3 months before cataract surgery. Perioperative corticosteroid prophylaxis is important to reduce the risk of cystoid macular edema and recurrence of the uveitis. Antimicrobial prophylaxis may also reduce the risk of reactivation in eyes with infectious uveitis. Uveitic cataracts may be surgically demanding due to the presence of synechiae, membranes, and pupil abnormalities that limit access to the cataract. This can be overcome by manual stretching, multiple sphincterotomies or mechanical dilation with pupil dilation devices. In patients <2 years of age and in eyes where the inflammation is poorly controlled, intraocular lens implantation should be deferred. Intensive local and/or oral steroid prophylaxis should be given postoperatively if indicated. Patients must be monitored closely for disease recurrence, excessive inflammation, raised intraocular pressure, hypotony, and other complications. Complications must be treated aggressively to improve visual rehabilitation. With proper patient selection, improved surgical techniques and optimization of peri- and post-operative care, patients with uveitic cataracts can achieve good visual outcomes.
Keywords: Cataract surgery / steroid prophylaxis / synechiolysis / uveitic cataract / uveitis

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