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Preallocated Duplicate Name Prefix Detection Mechanism Using Naming Pool in CCN Based Mobile IoT Networks

Published: 4 February 2016
Mobile Information Systems , Volume 2016, pp 1-9; doi:10.1155/2016/9684032

Abstract: As the number of mobile devices and IoT (internet of things) devices has explosively increased, various contents are created anytime and anywhere. To meet such trend, current internet architecture has exposed many limitations such as high control overhead due to multistaged address resolution, frequent location updates, and network congestion. Recently, information centric networking (ICN) is considered as new networking architecture to redesign current internet’s content exchange paradigm. In current ICN architecture, whenever a mobile node moves to a new domain, it needs long latency to configure and confirm the temporary name prefix. So, this paper presents an efficient name prefix configuration mechanism in mobile CCN to reduce the latency needed for the name prefix configuration during MCS’s handover. From the performance analysis, the proposed mechanism is shown to provide lower control overhead and lower resource consumption.1. IntroductionAs the volumes of various internet of things (IoT) devices and mobile devices have rapidly grown, the device movements have become the key research point. Mobile devices may link to information about IoT devices or may transmit real-time sensing data from them anytime and anywhere. It is expected that global mobile data traffic will increase 18 times from 2011 to 2016 [1]. Through such trend, mobile-connected devices lead to huge volume of data traffic and network resource consumption. However, the current internet architecture based on the host-based model cannot keep pace with such trend due to various additional operations (i.e., frequent location updates, multilevel address resolution, etc.).To solve such limitations, many researchers have paid attention to the new networking architecture like information centric networking (ICN), at which content is accessed by a content name itself instead of IP address for the node having the content. There are typical examples for ICN: DONA [2], 4WARD [3], NetInf [4], PSIRP [5], and CCN [6]. Among these studies, this paper focuses on the content-centric networking (CCN) architecture because it is regarded as efficient networking architecture for content sharing [7].However, there has been little consideration for the effects due to device movement. In CCN, content consumer mobility can be handled well because of CCN’s inherent receiver-driven natures, at which there are no needs for location updates. That is, after content consumer moves into another domain, it just retransmits interest packets relevant to data packets that have not been downloaded yet. Meanwhile, the content source mobility in CCN causes many problems such as frequent routing updates, repeated transmission of interest packets, and long content download time because it requires fully updating routing tables of all content routers.To overcome these problems, some solutions have been proposed. The tunnel-based approach [8, 9] is based on MIPv6. The locator/ID-based approach [10, 11] uses the concept of location and identifier separation to support the provider mobility in the ICN. The forwarding information base (FIB) update-based approach [12, 13] is also based on the MIPv6 concept, but instead of using a tunnel to redirect interest packets to the new location of the content source, it uses the FIB updates to redirect interest packets. However, these approaches still remain inefficient in terms of handover latency and high interest packet drop rate due to long latency for the new name prefix configuration. That is, such redirection schemes need the new name prefix to consistently receive the interest packets from content consumers. However, current CCN architecture assumes interest-data exchange model for the new name configuration and confirmation process to guarantee the name uniqueness, which results in long latency (i.e., over 5 seconds). So, fast duplicate name prefix detection (fDND) mechanism is presented to reduce the latency for the new name configuration [14]. But, it also requires over second unit for the new name configuration. So, this paper proposes an efficient preallocated name configuration mechanism using a naming pool architecture to reduce long handover latency of mobile content sources. The proposed scheme does not need any additional latency to check the name uniqueness by using a stateful name pool architecture.The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 briefly describes CCN architecture and then shows what happens while mobile content source moves into another domain. Section 3 presents the design and detailed operations of the proposed mechanism. Then we present the evaluation results and then make a conclusion.2. Mobility Management in CCN2.1. Basic CCNBasically, CCN is composed of two packet types, interest and data (Figure 1). Interest packet acts as a query for content. Data packet is utilized to carry the actual content. Interest packet contains a unique identifier (content name), a set of parameters such as the order preference (selector), and a random nonce value to prevent the packet from looping and so on. Each name prefix has a hierarchical structure, and “/” character represents delimiter between different components (i.e., “/smu.ac.kr/jyl/doc/pDND.txt”).Figure 1: Interest packet and data packet.Content name is utilized for content identifier and routing lookup.Each CCN node basically has three functional blocks for packet forwarding: content store (CS), pending interest table (PIT), and forwarding information base (FIB). The FIB is utilized to forward interest packets toward potential content holder(s) with matching data. It is almost similar to an FIB table of existing IP routers, at which the critical difference is that the object identifier is the content name itself, not IP address. The CS has the role as the content cache. It stores data packets to be used in future by other content requesters. So, CCN can provide localized transmission near content requesters. The PIT keeps track of interests forwarded toward content source(s) so that returned data can be sent back to its requester(s). PIT entries are eliminated as soon as they have been consumed to forward a matching data packet. PIT entries for interests that never find matching data are eventually timed out and naturally eliminated.The content retrieval and forwarding procedures are depicted in Figure 2. When an interest packet arrives at Face 0, a content store lookup is conducted based on its content name. If matched data is found in CS, the data packet is delivered. Otherwise, it searches a PIT entry to check whether it has already received another request for the same content. If a matched entry is found in the PIT, the CCN node adds into the existing entry the face on which the new interest packet arrived. When the data packet arrives at any node, it is replicated and sent out on all faces in the PIT entry for the content. If the content name in interest packet does not match either the CS or the PIT, the FIB is looked up to determine the outgoing face where the interest packet should be forwarded. Furthermore, the PIT adds one entry for the forwarded interest packet. In other words, data packet just simply follows the order of PIT entries back to the content requester.Figure 2: CCN forwarding engine.2.2. The Relevance of CCN with Mobile IoTIn IoT world, numerous heterogeneous devices are interconnected and transfer data to each other over a network [15–18]. So, large quantities of heterogeneous data that need to be processed in real time are dynamically generated. Also, the smart devices with various sensors (i.e., accelerometer, GPS, gyroscope, magnetometer, etc.) generate lots of information keeping in motion. Therefore, additional networking and service mechanisms are required to handle the huge volume of various kinds of heterogeneous information from IoT devices. Thus, inherent characteristics of CCN like hierarchical content name prefix and cache-and-forward architecture can efficiently handle the relevant traffic and service cases in IoT environment.However, in mobile environment, it hardly appears possible that mobile nodes know the exact name of the content data that it needs when interacting with local networks. Content name prefix in CCN environment is configured as hierarchical structure with various components and application-relevant naming. It facilitates more rapid content lookup. Content consumers do not care about where and how to obtain a piece of content data. So, to keep continuity of content delivery, new CCN naming configuration mechanism is required to handle various mobile IoT environment.2.3. The Problems due to Content Source MovementsAlthough CCN architecture is efficient for content sharing, some problems may take place to support mobile content sources. That is, as content consumer does not know the content source movement, mobile CCN requires an update of the FIB entry to forward interest packet towards the current location of mobile content source. It takes much time to update the FIB entry of all content routers and causes too many dynamic routing updates. So, interest packets may not be delivered due to long latency when the route to related content source is changed.Redirection based schemes like TBR [8, 9] are utilized to redirect interest packets and data packets between MCS’s home domain and the content router in the moved domain. However, existing redirection based schemes just consider normal interest-data sharing based name configuration and confirmation procedure, at which they do not care about the long latency required to guarantee name uniqueness. In the IoT environment where up-to-date information especially is very important, long handover latency incurs unnecessary deliveries of content request and provides bad experience to users.3. The New Preallocated Duplicate Name Detection MechanismThe main point of the proposed mechanism is to use a preallocated prefix from naming pool to provide fast and se
Keywords: handover / internet architecture / Current Internet / information centric networking / mobile devices / Ccn Based / Iot Networks / Prefix Detection / Preallocated Duplicate

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