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PENGARUH SUHU DAN LAMA PEMANASAN SAAT PROSES BLANSING TERHADAP SIFAT KIMIA, FISIKOKIMIA DAN FISIK TEPUNG UBI KAYU

Ayu Dian Pratiwi P, Siti Nurdjanah, Tanto Pratondo Utomo
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian , Volume 17, pp 117-125; doi:10.21082/jpasca.v17n2.2020.117-125

Abstract: Pengolahan ubi kayu segar menjadi tepung merupakan salah satu alternatif untuk mengatasi sifat fisiologis ubi kayu yang mempunyai umur simpan yang relatif singkat. Akan tetapi, pada umumnya tepung ubi kayu yang diproses secara tradisional dari gaplek memiliki beberapa kelemahan. Kelemahan ini antara lain kurang mengembang pada tingkat proporsi yang tinggi, tekstur produk relatif keras, serta aroma apek (musty) ubi kayu kering yang terbentuk karena reaksi lanjut dari proses kerusakan fisiologi pasca panen saat penjemuran gaplek. Komponen aroma musty ini sering kali masih terbawa ketika diaplikasikan pada produk olahannya. Upaya untuk memperbaiki kualitas tepung umbi-umbian telah banyak dilakukan termasuk penggunaan panas. Blansing dalam air panas telah dilaporkan dapat memperbaiki kualitas produk kering berbasis hortikultur. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengevaluasi pengaruh perbedaan suhu dan lama blansing dalam terhadap sifat fisikokimia dan morfologi granula tepung ubi kayu. Metode blansing menggunakan air panas bersuhu 50C, 55C dan 60℃ selama 5 menit, 7,5 menit dan 10 menit sebelum pegeringan dan penepungan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan suhu dan lama pemanasan berpengaruh terhadap sifat fisikokimia tepung ubi kayu. Semakin tinggi suhu dan semakin lama pemanasan menyebabkan penurunan kadar air, kadar abu, kadar amilosa, meningkatkan kelarutan dan swelling power, serta menyebabkan perubahan morfologi granula atau butiran tepung. Effect of Temperature and Heating Time During Blanching Process on Physicochemical and Morfologi Properties of Cassava FlourProcessing of fresh cassava into flour is one alternative to overcome the physiological properties of cassava which has a relatively short shelf life. However, in general, traditionally processed cassava flour has several disadvantages such as low dough development, less acceptable texture and flavor when used as main material in bakery products, as well as other food products. Many efforts to improve the quality of cassava flour have been carried out, including the use of heat treatments. Hot water pretreatment has been reported to be beneficial for improving quality of dried horticulture commodities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of temperature and length of blanching on physicochemical properties of cassava flour. The method was carried out by blanching cassava chip in hot water at 50C, 55C and 60℃ for 5,7,5 and 10 minutes before drying and milling. The results showed the temperature and duration of heating affected the physicochemical properties and granular morphology of cassava flour. The higher the temperature and the longer the blanching cause a decrease in water content, ash content, amylose content, increase solubility, increase swelling power, and slightly changed the granular structures.
Keywords: cassava flour / Swelling Power / Suhu Dan / Serta / Terhadap Sifat / Dan Lama / Fisikokimia Dan / Tepung Ubi / lama pemanasan

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