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Increased mortality among acute respiratory distress patients from immigrant dense urban districts

Torgny Wessman, Rafid Tofik, Klas Gränsbo, Olle Melander
Published: 11 March 2019
Open Access Emergency Medicine , Volume 11, pp 43-49; doi:10.2147/OAEM.S187686

Abstract: This study investigated whether living in immigrant dense urban districts (IDUDs) and low-income areas in the city of Malmö predicted 5-year mortality among patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) because of acute respiratory distress. We randomly selected 184 patients with acute respiratory distress during 2007, visiting the ED at Skåne University Hospital, Malmö. In 2007, Malmö had 36% first- and second-generation immigrants. The main exposure was defined as being resident in any of the five IDUDs of Malmö compared to being resident in the five districts of Malmö with the highest proportion of Sweden-born inhabitants (SDUDs). We recorded vital parameters; medical triage priority according to Adaptive Process Triage (ADAPT), ICD-10 diagnoses, and the mean annual income for the patient’s urban district. We examined 5-year mortality risk using Cox proportional hazards model. After adjustment for age and gender, patients from IDUDs (n=100, 54%) had an HR (95% CI) of 1.65 (1.087–2.494; P=0.019) regarding mortality at 5-year follow-up. Patients in the lowest vs highest income quartile had an HR of 2.00 (1.06–3.79; P=0.032) regarding mortality at 5-year follow-up. Age, male gender, presence of cardiopulmonary disease, and ADAPT priority also independently predicted the 5-year mortality. The excess risk of 5-year mortality associated with living in IDUDs remained significant after adjustment for age, gender, ADAPT priority, presence of cardiopulmonary disease, and income with an HR of 1.79 (1.15–2.78; P=0.010). Living in an IDUD is a strong independent risk factor for 5-year mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress. The cause is unknown. Our study suggests a need for better structured follow-up of cardiopulmonary disease in such patients.
Keywords: mortality / Socioeconomic / emergency department / income / Dyspnea / adapt

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