Enhanced Control of the Fungus Gnat Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) by Co-Application of Clothianidin and Hexaflumuron
Insects , Volume 12; doi:10.3390/insects12070571
Abstract: The fungus gnat is a major pest of chive in China. Its control has been relied heavily on the application of clothianidin. Due to the intensive application, its control efficacy become reduced. The present study was intended to evaluate co-drenching of clothianidin with hexaflumuron on absorption and dissipation of clothianidin in chive plants and soils and determine the effect of such application on control efficacies. Chive production fields in Guangdong and Hubei Provinces were drenched with clothianidin alone and a mixture of clothianidin and hexaflumuron at low application rates. Concentrations of clothianidin in chive plants and soils were analyzed by HPLC. Results showed that co-application had higher control efficacies against the fungus gnat than clothianidin alone. The co-application enhanced clothianidin absorption and dissipation and extended the half-lives of clothianidin in chive. It was likely that hexaflumuron protected chive roots from larva damage, and healthy roots absorbed more clothianidin, resulting in the extension of the half-lives. Additionally, the terminal residues of clothianidin in chive after 14 days of application were lower than the maximum residue limit in chive set by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. This study for the first time documented that co-application of clothianidin and hexaflumuron improved chive plants in absorption and dissipation of clothianidin and enhanced fungus gnat control efficacies.
Keywords: absorption and dissipation / accumulation factor / chive / clothianidin / fungus gnats / hexaflumuron
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