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Clinical and Experimental Treatment of Type-1 Diabetes

S Alice Long,

Abstract: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease resulting in destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Disease progression occurs along a trajectory from genetic risk, the development of islet autoantibodies and autoreactive T cells ultimately progressing to clinical disease. Natural history studies and mechanistic studies linked to clinical trials have provided insight into the role of the immune system in disease pathogenesis. Here, we review our current understanding of the underlying etiology of T1D, focusing on the immune cell types that have been implicated in progression from pre-symptomatic T1D to clinical diagnosis and established disease. This knowledge has been foundational for the development of immunotherapies aimed at prevention and treatment of T1D.
Keywords: autoimmunity / cellular immunology / diabetes / immunotherapy / autoantibodies

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