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Characterization of Pan-African Aquifer Layers by the Least Squares Inversion Method Applied on Geoelectric Data

Kana T. Idriss, Serge H. Pokam Kengni, Ndikum Eric Ndoh, Blaise P. Gounou Pokam, Charles T. Tabod
International Journal of Geosciences , Volume 10, pp 845-859; doi:10.4236/ijg.2019.1010048

Abstract: Geoelectric data obtained from forty (40) vertical electrical soundings collected with a Schlumberger device in the Adamawa plateau region, also known as the Cameroon water tower, have been treated by the least-squares inversion method. In order to study the nature and thickness of the aquifer and the necessary geoelectric parameters, quantitative and qualitative interpretations of the data were made. The results obtained showed that: about four to five geoelectric layers have been delimited in the study area with a dominance of the KH curve, which can be used as a reference for future studies. The first two layers constitute an association of clay and laterite with resistivity values ranging from 58 to 9122 Ω·m and whose thickness is between 0.6 and 13.4 m. The third layer is a potentially aquiferous laterite composed of clay, laterite and especially clay sand and cracked/good granite, with a dominance of sandy alteration whose resistivity values are between 81 and 960 Ω·m and its thickness between 12.2 and 26.8 m. The fourth and fifth layers are made up of cracked/good granite with a resistivity ranging from 12-10705 Ω·m with an average value of 1817 Ω·m. This study also shows that the North-East, South-West and South sectors could be the groundwater convergence zones and that the average depth of the basement aquifer roof is about 28.3 m. The geoelectric sections of certain demarcated vertical electrical sounding stations are consistent with the geologic description of the area.
Keywords: clay / laterite / Granite / layers / Squares / inversion / South / Geoelectric / cracked/good / middotm

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