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Environmental risks from automobile transport in a metropolis

Dmitry K. Knyazev
Vestnik MGSU , Volume 14, pp 1299-1308; doi:10.22227/1997-0935.2019.10.1299-1308

Abstract: Introduction. The paper considers environment-protective measures from automobile transport within the framework of city ecologization from the perspectives of ecological risks for urban environment and health of the local population. The purpose of the article is to develop a detection method of high-priority protective and sanitary measures oriented to the minimization of possible harm. Materials and methods. The author used statistical data, geographical and thematic maps, transport network planning features and also made field observations. The applied methods include correlation analysis, automated simulation, algorithms of calculation of the influencing processes/phenomena distribution on the territory. Results. A GIS software was used to simulate factor and integrated schemes of pollution priority urban territories adjacent to main roads. The schemes allowed assessing the number of people who are potentially subject to a risk of development/exacerbation of environmental pathologies. Increased (higher than natural background value) content of heavy metals was recorded on the sites adjacent to main roads in connection with more intensive traffic of large-capacity transport. The influence of automobile transport on the health of the population was found. An author’s method was formulated for the ecological classification of territories with various levels of automobile transport impact and detection of high-priority protective and sanitary measures. Conclusions. The research has estimated an exhaust-gases polluted area of urban territories adjacent to main roads as 40 to 190 m from the driveway. An area of increased sound pressure was recorded at 30 to 100 m from it. A correlation of pollutant concentration in the soil on traffic of large-capacity vehicles was identified. A set of statistically reliable relations (r > 0.3) between the levels of influence and ecology-dependent violations of the local population’s health was established. At the same time, there are some cases when separate age groups suffering the most considerable harm because of a specific factor. The author’s method was formulated to structure automobile transport factors by the levels of danger and to define priorities in the implementation of high-priority protective and sanitary measures. The article has proposed the conceptual ways of development of the urban territories adjacent to main roads.
Keywords: structure / Roads / local / harm / Adjacent / Automobile Transport / authorâ / method was formulated

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