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Neonatal morbidity and mortality: A 5-year analysis at federal medical centre, Gusau, Zamfara State, Northwest Nigeria

, Festus Dele Akeredolu, Musa Yakubu, Mohammed Nma Jiya, Ibrahim Jibrin Hano
Published: 30 September 2021

Abstract: Objectives: Neonatal morbidity and mortality have remained embarrassingly high in Nigeria compared to some countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nigeria ranked first in the burden of neonatal deaths in Africa. Therefore, there is need to know causes of newborn diseases and deaths in our neonatal unit. The objective of the study was to describe the morbidity and mortality of newborns admitted into Special Care Baby Unit of Federal Medical Centre, Gusau, Nigeria over a 5-year period. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study covering January 2012 to December 2016. The case folders of all newborns admitted during this period were retrieved and the following information were extracted: Sex of babies, diagnoses, outcome in terms of discharges, deaths, referrals, and discharge against medical advice (DAMA). Results: A total of 3,553 neonates were admitted during the period under review. The sex ratio for males and females was 1.4:1, respectively. The major diagnoses were neonatal sepsis (NNS) 36.5%, birth asphyxia 25.6%, and prematurity 16.1%. Mortality rate was 6.6% with major contributions from birth asphyxia (35.6%), prematurity (28.1%), and NNS (12.0%). DAMA rate was 1.7%. Conclusion: This study has shown that NNS, birth asphyxia, and prematurity are the dominant causes of morbidity and mortality. These are largely preventable.
Keywords: Africa / morbidity / mortality / neonatal / Nigeria / birth asphyxia / prematurity / NNS

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