Lymphatic Drainage of Bartholin’s Gland in Fresh Adult Cadavers: Implications in Terms of Groin Surgery in Case of Bartholin’s Gland Carcinoma
Abstract: Objective: To investigate the lymphatic drainage of Bartholin’s gland and its therapeutic implications in Bartholin’s gland carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from the anatomical study of ten fresh female cadavers with groin and pelvic dissections after lymphatic channel and node staining by injection of Lipiodol dye solution into Bartholin’s gland. Results: We distinguished three different lymphatic pathways: i) the superficial inguinal pathway, identified in 61.5% of cases, ii) the internal pudendal pathway (towards the pararectal fossa), identified in 30.8% of cases, and iii) the pelvic pathway, identified in 15.4% of cases, one after an inguinal pathway and the other following the labiocrural fold. No evidence of stained lymphatic structures was found in 31.6% of cases. The principal pathway was always ipsilateral. Conclusion: Ipsilateral groin lymphadenectomy offers the most effective ratio between oncological safety and surgery-related complications.
Keywords: gland / Bartholin / Adult / groin / lymphatic / inguinal / Carcinoma / Ipsilateral / Drainage / Cadavers
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