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Diagnosis of Breast Micro calcifications with Contrast Enhanced Digital Mammography and Histopathological Correlation

M.D.; Amir Louis Louka Hana Hamdy Nassef, M.Sc. Amira Lotaif Abdullah
The Medical Journal of Cairo University , Volume 88, pp 1561-1569; doi:10.21608/mjcu.2020.116249

Abstract: Backgroud: Microcalcificaitons constitute up to 31% of lesions detected at screening mammography. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) often presents with microcalcificaitons on mammography. Of all mammographically detected DCIS lesions, up to 79% manifest with microcalcifications only. However, not all microcalficications are associated with in situ or malignant disease. Aim of Study: To evaluate diagnostic value of contrast enhanced digital mammography in breast microcalcificaations. Methods: A retrospective study of 30 patients having mammographic suspicious breast calcifications under BIRADS 4, 5 and 6 categories. A high-energy and a low-energy digital mammograms were obtained and then images were subtracted, isolating the iodine signal in the region of angiogenesis. 1.5mg/kg of the contrast agent was injected by hand over a period of 1 minute at a rate of 3mL per second, followed by a saline solution flush. Breast compression was applied to reduce the thickness of the breast and images obtained exactly 2 min after contrast administration. Image acquisitions: Cranio-caudal and the medio-lateral oblique projections for the abnormal breast were obtained exactly 2 minutes after contrast injection followed by cranio-caudal and medio-lateral oblique projections of the normal breast. The lesions were analyzed by specialized radiologist for the presence, morphology, and pattern of enhancement. Finally, Correlation with histopatho-logical findings was done. Results: The sensitivity of CEDM in detecting malignant pathology with contrast uptake was 96%. Compared to sensi-tivity of 86.7% in FFDM. There were lesions of IDC in (69.2%), lesion of DCIS in (11.5%), lesion of IDCS & IDC in (11.5%) and lesions of ILC in (3.8%). Enhancement was also observed in 3/4 (75%) of the benign lesions. Conclusion: Dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital mam-mography is a useful technique in the diagnosis of underlying disease in mammographically detected breast microcalcifica-tions.
Keywords: lesions / mammography / malignant / IDC / Mammographically Detected / lesion of DCIS / breast microcalcificaations

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