Opioids Preconditioning Upon Renal Function and Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury: A Narrative Review
Medicina , Volume 55; doi:10.3390/medicina55090522
Abstract: Kidneys have an important role in regulating water volume, blood pressure, secretion of hormones and acid-base and electrolyte balance. Kidney dysfunction derived from acute injury can, under certain conditions, progress to chronic kidney disease. In the late stages of kidney disease, treatment is limited to replacement therapy: Dialysis and transplantation. After renal transplant, grafts suffer from activation of immune cells and generation of oxidant molecules. Anesthetic preconditioning has emerged as a promising strategy to ameliorate ischemia reperfusion injury. This review compiles some significant aspects of renal physiology and discusses current understanding of the effects of anesthetic preconditioning upon renal function and ischemia reperfusion injury, focusing on opioids and its properties ameliorating renal injury. According to the available evidence, opioid preconditioning appears to reduce inflammation and reactive oxygen species generation after ischemia reperfusion. Therefore, opioid preconditioning represents a promising strategy to reduce renal ischemia reperfusion injury and, its application on current clinical practice could be beneficial in events such as acute renal injury and kidney transplantation.
Keywords: Kidney / morphine / ischemia-reperfusion injury / fentanyl / Opioid Preconditioning
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