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Effect of the prosthetic index on stress distribution in Morse taper connection implant system and peri-implant bone: a 3D finite element analysis

Wen-Tao Zhang, Kang-Jie Cheng, Yun-Feng Liu, Russell Wang, Yun-Fang Chen, Yu-De Ding, ,
Published: 30 September 2022

Abstract: Background: The combination of a prosthetic index with Morse taper connection was developed, with the purpose of making prosthetic procedures more precise. However, the presence of the index may compromise the mechanical performance of the abutment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of prosthetic index on stress distribution in implant–abutment-screw system and peri-implant bone by using the 3D finite element methodology. Methods: Two commercial dental implant systems with different implant–abutment connections were used: the Morse taper connection with platform switching (MT-PS) implant system and the internal hex connection with platform matching (IH-PM) implant system. Meanwhile, there are two different designs of Morse taper connection abutment, namely, abutments with or without index. Consequently, three different models were developed and evaluated: (1) MT-PS indexed, (2) MT-PS non-indexed, and (3) IH-PM. These models were inserted into a bone block. Vertical and oblique forces of 100 N were applied to each abutment to simulate occlusal loadings. Results: For the MT-PS implant system, the maximum stress was always concentrated in the abutment neck under both vertical and oblique loading. Moreover, the maximum von Mises stress in the neck of the MT-PS abutment with index even exceed the yield strength of titanium alloy under the oblique loading. For the IH-PM implant system, however, the maximum stress was always located at the implant. Additionally, the MT-PS implant system has a significantly higher stress level in the abutment neck and a lower stress level around the peri-implant bone compared to the IH-PM implant system. The combined average maximum stress from vertical and oblique loads is 2.04 times higher in the MT-PS indexed model, and 1.82 times for the MT-PS non-indexed model than that of the IH-PM model. Conclusions: MT-PS with index will cause higher stress concentration on the abutment neck than that of without index, which is more prone to mechanical complications. Nevertheless, MT-PS decreases stress within cancellous bone and may contribute to limiting crestal bone resorption.
Keywords: Implant–abutment connection / Platform switching / Platform matching / Morse taper / Prosthetic index / Finite element analysis

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