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Elemental Composition of PM2.5 and PM10 in the Industrial Area of Yopougon, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

Alloman Joseph Popouen, Abdelfettah Benchrif, Ponaho Claude Kezo, Djama Djoman Alfred Agbo, Aka Antonin Koua, Moussa Bounakhla, Alain Georges Monnehan

Abstract: This paper describes the evaluation of trace element composition of atmospheric aerosol particles (PM2.5 and PM10) and their influence on air quality in the largest industrial area of Abidjan city, Côte d’Ivoire. Multi-week sampling was conducted in an urban site (industrial area) in Abidjan from April 2018 to July 2019. The mean mass concentration was 48.83 ± 15.24 μg/m3 for PM2.5 and 77.34 ± 10.91 μg/m3 for PM10, with significant temporal variability. The average ratio of PM2.5/PM10 was 0.64 ± 0.21. The concentration of BC in PM2.5 and PM10 was respectively 52.32 ± 7.48 μg/m3 and 52.26 ± 12.07 μg/m3. Twenty-two elements: Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Zr and Pb were analysed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). Elemental composition data were modeled using principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation to determine two (2) and four (4) dominant source categories contributing to PM2.5 and PM10 respectively. In the case of fine particles PM2.5, the possible sources were Industrial activities and non-exhaust emissions, exhaust emissions. The PM10 sources were industrial activities and non-exhaust emissions, industrial processes, mineral dust, and waste combustion.
Keywords: Aerosol Particles / PM2.5 / PM10 / EDXRF / PCA

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