Walnut bloom powder as a waste-based sorbent for cationic dyes removal: equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic studies
Abstract: In the present study, for the first time, walnut bloom (WB) powder was used as a natural and economic sorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from an aqueous solution. This new biosorbent was characterized using the following techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), COHNS, BET (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller) analysis, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. MB removal efficiency and its adsorption onto WB powder were tested in a batch system by varying parameters such as initial dye concentration, contact time, pH, temperature, and dosage of biosorbent in which the removal percentages of ∼92% was achieved under the optimum conditions. Equilibrium data and adsorption isotherms fit well with the Langmuir model (R2 = 0.999, 0 < RL< 1) with a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 46 mg g−1. The chemical kinetics of MB adsorption followed the pseudo second-order model. Also, the magnitude of thermodynamic functions identified the removal of MB. ΔH° of –7.32 kJ mol−1 and ΔS° of –4.32 kJ mol−1 indicated the spontaneity, exothermicity, and favorability of the adsorption process at room temperature.
Keywords: methylene blue / removal / walnut bloom powder
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